*The results of preclinical studies may not be indicative of human clinical trials.
Bassett, CA. Fundamental and practical aspects of therapeutic uses of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 1989; 17(5):451-529
Yen-Patton GP, et al. Endothelial cell response to pulsed electromagnetic fields: stimulation of growth rate and angiogenesis in vitro. J Cell Physiol. 1988 Jan; 134(1): 37-46
Zoltan, JD. Electrical Stimulation of Bone: An Overview. Seminars in Orthopaedics, Vol 1, No 4 (December), 1986: 242-252
PMA P850007. February 1986.
PMA P850007/S6. February 1990.
PMA P030034. December 2004.
Patterson TE, Sakai Y, Grabiner MD, et al. Exposure of murine cells to pulsed electromagnetic fields rapidly activates the mTOR-signaling pathway. Bioelectromagnetics. 2006;27(7):535-44
Selvamurugan N, Kwok S, Vasilov A, Jefcoat SC, Partridge NC. Effects of BMP-2 and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on rat primary osteoblastic cell proliferation and gene expression. J Orthop Res. 2007;25(9):1213-20
Midura RJ, Ibiwoye MO, Powell, KA, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic field treatments enhance the healing of fibular osteotomies. J Orthop Res. 2005;23:1035-46
Garland DE, Moses B, Salver W. Fracture healing: Long-term follow-up of fracture nonunions treated with PEMFs. Contemp Orthop. 1991;22(3):295-302. PubMed Abstract
Simmons JW, Mooney V, Thacker I. Pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: non-operative salvage with pulsed electromagnetic fields. American Journal of Orthopedics, 2004 Jan;33(1):27-30. PubMed Abstract
Mooney V. A randomized double-blind prospective study of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields of interbody lumbar fusions. Spine. 1990 July;15(7):708-12. PubMed Abstract
Foley K, et al. Randomized, prospective, and controlled clinical trial of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation for cervical fusion. The Spine Journal. 2008 May/June;8:436-442. PubMed Abstract
Zborowski M, Androjna C, Waldorff El, Midura RJ 2015 Comparison or therapeutic magnetic stimulation with electric stimulation of spinal column vertebrae. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 51(12): #5001009, doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2015.2458297
Schnoke M, Midura RJ. Pulsed electromagnetic fields rapidly modulate intracellular signaling events in osteoblastic cells: comparison to parathyroid hormone and insulin. J Orthop Res. 2007;25(7):933-40
Ibiwoye MO, Powell KA, Grabiner MD. Bone mass is preserved in a critical-sized osteotomy by low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields as quantitated by in vivo micro-computed tomography. J Orthop Res. 2004;22(5):1086-93
Orthofix patient registry. PMA P850007/S20. Data on file.
Data on file. Field mapping analysis conducted by M. Zborowski, Ph.D., Cleveland Clinic.
iData Research Inc., U.S. Market for Spinal Implants and VCF (iDATA_USSP15_RPT), iData Research Inc (www.idataresearch.net) 2015